Treatment of Anorectal Diseases by Al-Rāzī
This paper examines the writings of Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī (d. 313 AH/925 CE), known to Europeans as Rhazes, regarding anorectal disease, including hemorrhoids, incontinence, fissures, rectal prolapse, ulcers, itching, abscesses, solid swelling and fistulas. His writings reveal that the surgical treatment of anorectal disease was well-recognized and treated with utmost care and diligence.
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