A Clinico-pathological Study of the Adult Nephrotic Syndrome in Northern Iraq


  • Mohammad J Al-Habbal College of Medicine Mosul lraq
  • Huthaifa Al-Dewachi College of Medicine Mosul lraq
  • Khalid Abdulla Saddam College of Medicine Baghdad Iraq




Adult nephrotic syndrome, kidney, histopathological lesions.


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5915/26-2-16362

One hundred eleven patients, 61 males and 50 females, with a mean age of 27 years (SD 16) and tbe range of 12 years to 70 years who had nephrotic syndrome were biopsled and their clinical and laboratory features studied. Minimal change glomerulonephritis accounted for 23% of cases followed by membranoproliferatlve glomerulonephritis (19%) and amyloidosis (15%), both of which are uncommon in Western literature. Seventy-six (68%) of the cases were idiopathic. Thirty five (32%) were secondary amyloidosis accounting for 17, and systemic lupus erythematosus accounting for eight of them. Serum
cholestrol was elevated in nine of the 17 patients with amyloidosis, which is the same proportion seen in the patients as a whole, and hypertension was absent in all but one of them.  Membranousglomerulonephritis, the most common cause of the nephrotlc syndrome, in most reports accounted for 12%. Of three diabetics, one was not a known diabetic before, and one was a known diabetic for two years only.

The relative frequency of the causes of the nephrotic syndrome and some features of amyloidosis and diabetes are apparently different in our patients from what is classically described.

Author Biographies

Mohammad J Al-Habbal, College of Medicine Mosul lraq


College of Medicine

Huthaifa Al-Dewachi, College of Medicine Mosul lraq


College of Medicine

Khalid Abdulla, Saddam College of Medicine Baghdad Iraq


Saddam College of Medicine


Sokmen C, Ozdenur AI: The spectrum of renal diseases found by kidney biopsy in Turkey. Ann Int Med. 1967;67:603-5.

Gilles HM, Heodrickes RG. Nephrosis in Nigerian children. Role of plasmodium Malariae and the effect of antimalarial treatment. Br Med J. 1963;2:27-31.

Kibukamusoke JW, Hutt MSR, Wilks NE. The nephrotic syndrome in Uganda and its association with quartan malaria. Quart J Med. 1967;36:393-408.

Abdulla K, Al-Habbal MJ, Krajci D. Preliminary report: Light and electron microscopic study of renal biopsies in the adult nephrotic syndrome in Northern Iraq. J Fac Med Baghdad. 1987;29:63-74.

Blainey JD, Brewer DB, Hardwicke J. Proteinuria and the nephrotic syndrome. In: Black D, Jones NF, eds. Renal Disease, 4th ed. London: Blackwell Scientific Publications;1979:383-99.

Glassock RJ, Cohen AH, Bennett CN, et al. The primary glomerular diseases that evoke the nephrotic syndrome. In: Brenner BM, Rector FC, eds. The Kidney. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders 1981:1419.

Robson JS. The nephrotic syndrome. In: Black, ed. Renal Disease. 2nd ed. London: Blackwell Scientific Publications;1972:276.

Heptinstall RH. Pathology of the kidney. 2nd ed. New York: Little Brown;1974:506.

Kyle RA, Bayrd ED. Amyloidosisi: review of 236 cases. Medicine. 1975;54:271.

Sohar E, Gafni J, Pras M, et al. Familial Mediterranean Fever: A survey of 470 cases and review of the literature. Am J Med. 1969;43:227.

Jones NF: Amyloidosis and Myelomatosis, In Black D, Jones NF, rds. Renal Diseases, 4th ed. London: Blackwell Scientific Publications 1979:713·30.






Original Articles