Contribution of Muslim Physicians and Scholars of Spain During the Period Between the Ninth and Thirteenth Centuries

M. Basheer Ahmed



The period of the 9th to 13th centuries is regarded as a golden period of Muslim history during which Muslims had established the most powerful empire and had produced the most brilliant physicians, scientists and scholars. These scholars made their original contributions and significant additions to existing scientific knowledge. In Cordoba ("Qurtubah") and other cities of Spain, Muslim scholars established some of the most renowned universities where European scholars came to learn. Muslim scholars achieved excellence in all sciences, including but not limited to, mathematics, astronomy, philosophy, chemistry and medicine. They established general hospitals with speciality units, defined criteria for admission to medical schools and described characteristics of a competent physician. Christian scholars subsequently translated the most valuable material from Arabic to Latin and these books served as standard textbooks in European universities for several centuries. The Muslim contributions became the basis of culture, scientific and technological achievement which has had a lasting influence on the world. I do hope that the knowledge of the work done by the Muslim scholars during the 9th to 13th centuries period will serve as a source of inspiration to current and future Muslim generations.

Presented at the IMA 23rd Annual Convention
Nerja, Spain, June 1990.


Muslim physicians; Muslim scholars; 9th-13th centuries; Muslim Spain

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