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Maynard Saunders

Bio Statement Eeg Neurotheraphy In The Therapy Of Alcoholism Aan Addictions
Introduction

Alcoholism is a disease that afflicts at least 12 million Americans. It leads to roughly 250,000 premature deaths a year, disrupts the lives of some 45 million loved ones members and fees an estimated $120 billion a year in health-related bills, property damage and lost time and productivity.


Over the past eight years, a main breakthrough in the treatment of alcoholism and chemical dependency has been regularly demonstrated by a number of researchers, which includes (but not limited to) Saxby and Peniston (1995 ), Anderson (1994 ), Sonder and Sonder (1994 ), White (1994 ), Cowan (1993 ), Patterson (1993 ), Peniston, Marrinan, Deming and Kulkosky (1993 ), Schneider, Elbert, Heimann, Welker, Stetter, Mattes, Birbaumer and Mann (1993 ), Byers (1992 ), Fahrion, Walters, Coyne and Allen (1992 ), and Peniston and Kulkosky (1990, 1989).


The essence of this remedy involves a non-invasive, non-pharmacological outpatient plan combining EEG brain wave biofeedback (referred to as neurotherapy), hugely particular imagery of brain structures, neurotransmitters and brain wave patterns, good personalized visualizations, cognitive re-scripting and intensive cognitive-behavior therapy. drinking , commonly referred to as the Peniston Protocol, is administered three-five days per week over a 7-12 week period for a total of 35-40 sessions.


Results Prices and Cost-Effectiveness

In sharp contrast to standard inpatient, outpatient and 12-step remedy applications, which yield maximum accomplishment rates of 30-40%, the lengthy-term (3 year) abstinence prices for severe alcoholism /">alcoholic s receiving the Peniston Protocol regularly attain 80%. Additionally, significant constructive, measurable and durable personality adjustments have regularly accompanied these startling results.


Further, these dramatic final results seem to be deliverable at a extremely affordable expense (e.g., $4,000 - $6,000 total), particularly in comparison to the incredibly higher cost of traditional inpatient treatment applications (e.g., $two,500 - $9,000 per week, based on complexity of diagnosis and whether or not detoxification is included).


Background and Rationale

As it functions, the brain produces minute electrical signals on its surface named brain waves. Brain waves consistently adjust as the brain handles the business of dealing with itself and its environment. For over alcohol dependence , this electroencephalographic (EEG) activity has been utilised for neuroanalysis (e.g., diagnosis of brain disease or injury). With the advent of fast computers, researchers are now able to quantitatively analyze the frequency and amplitude of brain waves (QEEG) to type complex topographic "maps" of the EEG's power and frequency distribution for much more precise and helpful diagnoses. They found that abnormal behavior normally corresponded to abnormal brain wave patterns and distributions.


Conclusive analysis indicates that specific kinds of abnormal brain functioning can be corrected by learning to operantly situation the brain's electrical activity. This conditioning is accomplished by visual and/or audio feedback of the moment-to-moment activity of the EEG. This visual/audio EEG feedback is employed by the patient to discover to increase or lower the energy and/or percentage of selected brain wave frequencies This conditioning or education is named neurotherapy.


Neurotherapy is proving to be medically successful due to the fact it facilitates optimistic neurochemical, character and behavioral adjustments in somewhat quick periods of time (weeks vs. months or even years). Furthermore, it is cost- helpful mainly because it avoids the higher expenses related with surgery, drugs or long- term inpatient or outpatient therapy.


It is also widely accepted among researchers and clinicians that patterns of surface EEG activity reflect the activity of deeper brain structures and patterns of brain neurochemistry. For example, those brain neurotransmitters, opioids, neurohormones and neuropeptides connected with reward and internal feelings of properly-becoming are influenced straight (and as a result fluctuate widely) according to adjustments in cortical EEG patterns. Equally vital, alcohol cravings and uncontrollable alcohol ingestion are now strongly associated with each deficiencies and/or abnormalities in particular brain neurochemicals (e.g., serotonin opioid peptides which includes beta endorphin and enkephalin norepinephrine dopamine and GABA) and poorly developed low frequency EEG rhythms (e.g., alpha and theta) (Blum, 1991).


Consequently, as Peniston and quite a few other researchers have shown, the normalization of alpha and theta EEG rhythms via neurotherapy produces the same normalization of brain chemistry that is produced by either alcohol ingestion or the external manipulation of the excitatory and inhibitory processes that control these important neurochemicals. In other words, the improved feelings of reward and internal properly-being that take place from alcohol ingestion or other external influences of brain neurochemistry are also created by the normalization of alpha and theta rhythms via neurotherapy.


Hence, the complicated interrelationships amongst these variables seem to be each at the root and the cure for serious alcohol cravings and uncontrollable alcohol ingestion. Moreover, these interrelationships and the normalization of the deficient things inside them by way of neurotherapy certainly contribute to an understanding as to why the Peniston Protocol produces such impressive benefits with this challenging clinical population.


Breakdown of the Peniston Protocol

Though there is some variation amongst clinicians, the following is a step- by-step breakdown of the most frequently applied clinical procedures inside the Peniston Protocol:


( 1) Intake interview, evaluation and character/behavioral pre-testing (e.g., MMPI II, MCMI II, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Hopelessness Scale and/or Sixteen Character Factor Questionnaire).


( 2) Short pre-treatment QEEG topographic brain map.

( 3) 5 preliminary non-EEG biofeedback sessions (e.g. temperature, EMG, and/or skin conductance).


( 4) Twenty-five to thirty alpha/theta neurotherapy sessions.

( 5) Short post-remedy QEEG topographic brain map.


( 6) Discharge interview, evaluation and character/behavioral post-testing (e.g., MMPI II, MCMI II, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Hopelessness Scale and/or Sixteen Personality Issue Questionnaire).


Character/Behavioral Improvements

In addition to lengthy-term (three year) abstinence rates of 80%, the Peniston Protocol has consistently created the following incredibly healthful personality adjustments:


( 1) Significant decreases in scales labeled schizoid, avoidant, passive- aggressive, schizotypal, borderline, paranoid, anxiousness, somatoform, dysthymia, alcohol abuse, psychotic pondering, depression, psychotic depression, hypochondriasis, hysteria, schizophrenia, social introversion and psychotic delusion.


( two) Considerable increases in warmth, abstract pondering, stability, conscientiousness, boldness, imaginativeness and self-handle.


Thus, the Peniston Protocol consistently produces optimistic adjustments in what quite a few contemplate to be "tough wired" aspects of personality. These dramatic personality alterations improve the patient's potential to cope without the need of substance abuse, significantly reducing the likelihood of relapse.


Summary and Conclusion
managing-the-risks-alcohol-use-and-abuse

Alcoholism is a debilitating and high-priced disease that has responded poorly to conventional inpatient, outpatient and 12-step treatment applications (e.g., maximum 30-40% sustained abstinence). Researchers Eugene Peniston and Paul Kulkosky, along with a lot of others over the previous eight years, have regularly demonstrated that extreme alcoholic s treated with EEG neurotherapy, imagery/visualization and cognitive-behavior therapy (e.g., the Peniston Protocol) show startling long-term (three year) abstinence prices of 80%. Moreover, these extremely positive benefits are regularly accompanied by dramatic, healthier personality/behavioral adjustments that clearly contribute to reductions in the likelihood of relapse.


The neurotherapeutic alterations in alpha/theta EEG rhythms achieved by these sufferers with the Peniston Protocol produce low, sustained levels of the opioid peptide beta-endorphin, reflecting lower sustained levels of arousal and pressure. Additionally, the normalization of low frequency cortical EEG rhythms (e.g., alpha & theta) apparently also create normalization of quite a few other brain neurochemicals whose imbalances are very connected with serious alcohol cravings and uncontrolled alcohol ingestion.


In addition to its extremely higher success price for this challenging clinical population, the Peniston Protocol seems to be pretty price-efficient in comparison to traditional inpatient and outpatient treatment applications.


Anderson, B. (1994 ). Applications of biofeedback and neurotherapy in private practice in the therapy of alcohol and chemical dependency. Presentation delivered to the Sophisticated Brainwave Education Institute, Quantity 5, Washburn University, Topeka, Kansas, February, 1994.


Blum, K. (1991) Alcohol and the Addictive Brain. New York: The Totally free Press.

Byers, A.P. (1992 ). The normalization of a character through neurofeedback therapy. Subtle Energies, three,1,1-17.


Cowan, J. (1993 ). Alpha-theta brainwave biofeedback: The several possible theoretical causes for its results. Biofeedback, 21, two, 11-16.


Fahrion, S.L., Walters, E.D., Coyne, L., & Allen, T. (1992 ). Alteration in EEG amplitude, character elements and brain electrical mapping just after alpha- theta brainwave education: A controlled case study of an alcoholic in recovery. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Investigation, 16, 3, 547-552.


Patterson, D.M. (1993) The secret of my success as a therapist: Clinical procedures and success prices for the Peniston Protocol in the remedy of alcoholism, chemical dependency and post-traumatic stress disorder. Invited presentation delivered to the staff of the Mastery Plan, a subsidiary of Advanced Neuroscience Corporation, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, October, 1993.


Peniston, E.G., Marrinan, D.A., Deming, W.A., & Kulkosky, P.J. (1993 ). EEG alpha-theta brainwave synchronization in Vietnam theater veterans with combat- related post-traumatic pressure disorder and alcohol abuse. Advances in Health-related Psychotherapy, 6, 37-50.


Peniston, E.G. & Kulkosky, P.J. (1990 ). Alcoholic character and alpha-theta brainwave coaching. Health-related Psychotherapy, three, 37-55.


Peniston, E.G. & Kulkosky, P.J. (1989 ). Alpha-theta brainwave coaching and beta-endorphin levels in alcoholic s. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Analysis, 13, two, 271-277.


drinking , E. & Peniston, E.G. (1995 ). Alpha-theta brainwave neurofeedback training: An effective therapy for male and female alcoholics with depressive symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51( five ), 685-693.


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Sonder, C. & Sonder, J. (1994) Alpha-theta brainwave training for alcoholism , chemical dependency and post-traumatic pressure disorder: Accomplishment prices for the Peniston Protocol. Personal communications with regards to the Mastery System, a subsidiary of Advanced Neuroscience Corporation, Cherry Hill, New Jersey, January, 1994.


istock_000002187896medium.jpgWhite, N. E. (1994 ). The Peniston Protocol as a multi-level intervention: Theories of achievement of alpha-theta instruction. Panel presentation at the Twenty-Fifth Annual Conference of the Association of Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback entitled Alpha-Theta Brainwave Biofeedback: The Several Explanations for its Clinical Effectiveness, Atlanta, Georgia, March 7, 1994.